Entry #: 31 Date: 22 January 2018
Section: Phenolic extracts
Topic: Phenolic extracts and pancreatic cancer cells
Type: Original Paper
OliveNetTM Journal Club
Expert review of literature related to olives and olive oil
D. Elizabeth McCord, Nancy B. Ray and Tom C. Karagiannis
Phytochemical properties and anti-proliferative activity of Olea europaea L. leaf extracts against pancreatic cancer cells
Goldsmith et al
Citation / Year
(1) / 2015
Phenolic extracts, olive leaf extract, aqueous extract, green extract, oleuropein, pancreatic cancer cells
The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the quality and potential anti-cancer effects in cell culture of three different olive leaf extractions. The study was motivated by the accumulated evidence indicating that the Mediterranean diet with consumption of extra-virgin olive oil is associated with numerous health benefits (2-4). In particular, the phenolic component, typified by major phenolics such as oleuropein, is thought to be responsible for the health benefits (5-8). In this context, processing of olives for production of olive oil is associated with significant waste products, including olive leaf, wastewater, and pomace, all of which contain high concentrations of phenolic compounds (9, 10). Therefore, potentially extracting or isolating beneficial compounds from these essentially waste products is very beneficial from both an economic and environmental perspective. For reference, olive leaf constitutes approximately 10% of the material arriving at olive processing mills, and is considered a waste product which is either used as animal feed, or requires burning and disposal (1). In this study, the aim was to prepare crude olive leaf extracts from two different olive cultivars using previously optimised extraction processes.
Key points and implications
Olive leaf extracts were prepared from Corregiola and Frantoio Olea europaea L varieties using, what was referred to by the authors as a “green” aqueous (water) extraction process and either a 50% methanol or 50% ethanol extraction process, which also involved ultrasonication. The total phenolic content, flavonoid and oleuropein content, and antioxidant capacity of the three different crude olive leaf extracts was compared. The findings indicated that there no significant difference between the total phenolic content, flavonoid and oleuropein content, and in antioxidant capacity, in extracts prepared from the two different cultivars, in line with the knowledge that geographic location of the tree is the important factor with respect to phenolic profiles. When comparing the phytochemical properties of the different extraction processes, it was shown that although the flavonoid component was higher in the ethanol (approximately double) extract compared to the water extract, the total phenolic content was similar for all three extraction processes. Similarly, at 200 μg/mL all three crude olive leaf extracts reduced the viability of MiaPaCa-2 prostate cancer cells to less than 1% compared to untreated (control) cells. While there were differences in the cyototoxic potency of which was dependent on the cultivar and extraction process, at 100 μg/mL, all of the extracts were more potent than gemcitabine at its IC50 (concentration required to reduce cell viability by 50%). Gemcitabine is an important frontline anticancer chemotherapeutic (11, 12). Interestingly, when comparing the effect on cell viability of the different extracts at 50 μg/mL, it was shown that the Corregiola water extract was the most potent. Overall, this study provides encouraging preliminary cell culture results, and highlights that “green” water extraction methodologies is an important area for further investigation to produce biologically active extracts with potential health benefits.
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